A detailed procedure for gland packing on a centrifugal pump. Shaft Diameter Suggested Leakage Rates Replace packing when leakage can not be controlled by further take up of the gland. Results: After a week of installation, the pump was inspected for leakage, and the drip rate was below 10-15 drops per minute without pump … When frictional heat is generated, these materials tend to retain the heat and concentrate it near the shaft surface. Often in these harsh applications, the packing … Reduce leakage gradually by tightening gland nuts slowly until leakage reaches acceptable level. Allow 24 hours break-in time. Protecting assets with real-time condition data. This month's Sealing Sense was contributed by FSA Member Chris Boss. It could take several rounds of investigation to identify the true root cause of a packing issue. 10. Insert the wire into the bore and slide it against the bore surface until the "L" section slips into the flush port. On a 2.000”/50mm diameter … If an equipment manufacturer has not provided guidance or a specification, how do you decide what to use? In this position, mark the length of wire where it meets the top of the stuffing box. Pingback: Fire Pump Packing Failures | Steven Brown & Associates, Hubbell Launches a New Line of Metron Fire Pump Controllers, Fire Pump Packing Failures | Steven Brown & Associates, Future Safety Features in Fire Pump Controllers – Master Controls, Check out this Impressive Fire Pump System Installation, Get Comprehensive Fire Protection in a Packaged Pump House. Q.Is it important to adjust bolt tension on gland-fol-lower after pump start-up? By following these two steps, you will help lengthen the service life of your pump. Proper Pump Packing Installation. Our blog today looks at the proper procedures for packing gland adjustments which will help extend the service life of your fire pump. Leakage control can be complicated at these pressures because small adjustments of the gland bolts can cause drastic changes in leak rate and, subsequently, the frictional heat and operating temperature of the packing set. Measure and record key dimensions such as shaft diameter, bore diameter and box depth. If the gasket has receded into the seam, it can result in a direct leak path. After leakage is reduced, further adjustments should be small. If packing is not installed and seated properly, wear, heat increase, and … Identifying common failure modes of pump packing. Liquid should not be allowed to leak from the stuffing box at the rate of 30 to 60 drops per minute. A mechanical seal is a device that is used to control leakage between a rotating shaft and a liquid- or gas-filled vessel. https://www.stevenbrownassociates.com/blog/fire-pump-packing-failures Cost of Product. For most braided pump packing, liquid leakage is absolutely necessary to provide lubrication and cooling of the sealing surface and ensure the seal's long life. Learn the basics of wear components and their role in system operation in this white paper. completely self-contained unit (including seal faces, flexible elements, seal gland plate, sleeve, and … The gland follower should always be adjusted evenly so that a uniform load is applied to the packing surface and the gland follower will not become "cocked" and cause metal-to-metal contact with the spinning shaft. This may indicate the following: 1. yes, mechanical seals give 100% leak seal, not like gland packing seals. The surface finish of the shaft should be in the range of 16 to 32 μin Ra. The opportunity to see inside the stuffing box does not happen often. allow packing to leak freely starting up a newly packed pump. Gland Packing … Start pump and tighten gland nuts allowing liberal leakage. built-in lubricant or the packing itself is completely densified the effectiveness of the packing is lost and replacement is required. Built-in lubricants are gradually . Often in these harsh applications, the packing … Leakage control can be complicated at these pressures because small adjustments of the gland bolts can cause drastic changes in leak rate and, subsequently, the frictional heat and operating temperature of the packing set. The predicted leak rates from different gasses (He, N 2 , Ar) are compared to those measured experimentally, in which the set of packing rings is mainly subjected to different gland … Packing … Every 20 minutes, tighten the packing gland nuts, one flat at a time until the leakage has been reduced to about 60 drops per minute. Signs that the packing has failed include increased leakage, smoke at the stuffing box or uncontrolled leakage at the gland. Adjust at 15 minute intervals. When frictional heat is generated between the packing and the high speed shaft, these materials will effectively conduct the heat out to the body of the pump. If you run into issues with making a packing gland adjustment or you’re looking for a packing replacement, don’t hesitate to call the experts here at Steven Brown & Associates. Under normal working conditions a slight drip from the gland under pressure assists in cooling and lubricating the packing. If leakage stops abruptly, back off the gland and readjust to prevent packing … Overtightening is the most common cause of packing failure. Some form of sealing method must be put in place to minimize the leakage. The red pump in the nearby cutaway does not have rows and rows of Packing in the Stuffing Box. However no common criteria for determining the replacement frequency or relating it to the packing … Correctly adjusted gland packing should be maintained with a leakage rate … 23. Even when leakage … Correctly adjusted gland packing should be maintained with a leakage rate of approximately 1-drop per minute of sealed product per inch/25mm of outside diameter of shaft. Excessive leakage during the first hour of operation will result in a better packing job over a longer period of time. Several braid configurations, packing fibers and combinations of packing fiber materials are available. We invite your questions on sealing issues and will provide best efforts answers based on FSA publications. New packing requires a “break in” period of at least four hours of pump operation… It could take several rounds of investigation to identify the true root cause of a packing issue. Leakage control can be complicated at these pressures because small adjustments of the gland bolts can cause drastic changes in leak rate and, subsequently, the frictional heat and operating temperature of the packing set. This will help maintain a more even compressive load throughout the depth of the packing set. Gland followers should be adjusted at regular intervals to maintain the recommended leakage flow rate. Packing cannot be 100% leak free. Overtightening is the most common cause of packing … Oftentimes, operators overtighten the packing gland in attempt to keep the packing from leaking. The existing worn sleeve was left in place. If the pump uses a flush injection and lantern ring be sure to remove the lantern ring and the packing below it. Some synthetic polymer materials, such as PTFE, are thermal insulators. Install the proper flush set-up (see next page) and start flushing the stuffing box. Several minutes should pass before the next adjustment is made. Allow 24 hours break-in time. A mechanical seal is a device that is used to control leakage between a rotating shaft and a liquid- or gas-filled vessel. Axial scratches can create direct paths for leakage to the environment. The selection of appropriate packing, the cutting methods like straight and angular, the means to extract the old … The leakage that comes out the atmospheric side is fairly low; the leakage in a Hydrocarbon, for example, is measured by a VOC meter in parts/million.Before mechani… This may indicate the following: 1. amount and cosmetic visibility of the leakage will vary from pump to pump. Packing cannot be 100% leak free. Establishing the Proper Flush Set-Up In order to establish the proper flush set-up, you … The education is provided in the public interest to enable a balanced assessment of the most effective solutions to pump systems technology issues on rational Total Life Cycle Cost principles. Thermal expansion determines how much the packing material will grow when it is heated. After adjustment, the leakage rate will usually be reduced. We have over 50 years combined experience in the fire pump sales and service industry, and we can help you with whatever service need you may have. You should typically have one drip per second continually, even with the pump not operating. 16. ... install the gland follower and run the gland nuts up finger tight only. A mechanical seal, and more specifically a double mechanical seal, should always be used when the pumped fluid presents a safety, health, or environmental hazard. Axial scratches and pitting on the shaft or sleeve can quickly damage the sealing surface. Fluid loss will increase as gland packing material begins to wear down and may impair regular lubrication or reduce ease-of-replacement. • After running the packing in for 15-30 minutes, begin tightening the gland nuts one flat at a time until the desired leakage … Poor pump packing procedure can lead to a range of negative impacts, such as pump sleeve damage. ... permit the pump to leak generously through the packing rings for 10 to 15 minutes. Learn how early adopters are benefitting from emerging technology as well as the impact COVID-19 has had on water management. Attempts have been made by pump manufacturers to minimize this leakage through design, but the leakage won't be stopped entirely. Tag the removal order of each ring and bag up each packing sample, noting the date and MTBF. Two key material properties determine how a packing will respond to compressive adjustment: thermal conductivity and thermal expansion. The initial cost of Gland (Pump) Packing is low when compared to the costs associated with mechanical seal. A packing gland … By choosing the appropriate material and following the fine points of sound installation and adjustment principles, a long lasting, robust, reliable seal can be achieved in some of the most demanding services. Packing a pump is an acquired skill, like riding a bicycle. These last two measurements can be used to ensure proper alignment of the lantern ring with the flush port. The concept of compression packing is fairly simple: squeeze a compressible material into a gap to create a seal. This cools the shaft … Tag the removal order of each ring and bag up each packing sample, noting the date and MTBF. Through the packing and shaft surface contact pressure, it prevents the medium leakage … What are the best practices for sealing equipment with high thermal expansion? PREPARE FOR PUMP START-UP AND LEAKAGE This will greatly increase the packing life. Proper installation and adjustment can make the difference between the success and failure of a packed pump. Adjust packing (Pumps) Take up gland nuts until finger-tight. Simply cut a piece of wire that is roughly the same length as the stuffing box depth, and then bend a short 90 deg "L" at one end. USING PACKING AS A SEAL. A detailed procedure for gland packing on a centrifugal pump. completely self-contained unit (including seal faces, flexible elements, seal gland plate, sleeve, and … Often in these harsh applications, the packing … Find out which technologies work best to keep centrifugal pumps from causing downtime in critical industrial processes. If leakage stops abruptly, back off the gland and readjust to prevent packing … Garlock compression packing … The leakage that comes out the atmospheric side is fairly low; the leakage in a Hydrocarbon, for example, is measured by a VOC meter in parts/million.Before mechani… Take this opportunity to check the equipment condition and do some record keeping to make the job easier the next time the equipment needs to be serviced. Packing a pump is an acquired skill, like riding a bicycle. Missed your issue of Pumps & Systems because you are not at work? Packing … Start pump and tighten gland nuts allowing liberal leakage. As each ring is inserted, it should be seated firmly into the bottom of the stuffing box before the next ring is installed. Instead, get to the bottom of it! PTFE fibers or coatings exhibit relatively high thermal expansion. Do not overtighten. This will appear as a concentrated jet of leakage on the outside of the gland follower in the area of the seam. There are two principal paths that leakage can take out of the stuffing box: Various packing materials respond differently to adjustment. The seam of each successive ring should be offset by 90 deg. The amount of leakage is controlled by the packing gland (D). Garlock compression packing … Why use a Mechanical Seal? Leak-rate capabilities can vary, but rates of eight to 10 drops per minute per inch of shaft diameter are common. A shaft-stabilizing bushing, noncontact air seal and vertical labyrinth bearing isolator eliminated excessive leakage from a pulper, ended repeat failure of a gearbox, and minimized shaft movement. allow packing to leak freely starting up a newly packed pump. Leakage control can be complicated at these pressures because small adjustments of the gland bolts can cause drastic changes in leak rate and, subsequently, the frictional heat and operating temperature of the packing set. 9. NSPL PUMP SEAL DESIGN ( API 682) Based on API 682, all mechanical seal shall be cartridge design. One acronym commonly used as a guideline when making a packing selection is STAMPS. Through advancements in materials, design and technology, Garlock is now able to seal the most difficult fugitive emissions and eliminate pump leakage entirely. However no common criteria for determining the replacement frequency or relating it to the packing … Remove all old packing. At the beginning of the pump operation, loosen the gland nuts and allow the packing boxes to leak liberally. Check rings for the following: Embedded Solids See if the solids are embedded in all the rings. Title: TECHNICAL INFORMATION BULLETIN No Author: Sterling Created Date: 5/8/2006 11:23:40 AM Allow packing to leak freely at first and gradually tighten gland to an allowable leakage rate. Often in these harsh applications, the packing … A leakage rate of 10 drops per hour or less per seal is considered an acceptable leak rate for mechanical seal pumps manufactured in our North American or European facilities. Even when leakage … Poor pump packing procedure can lead to a range of negative impacts, such as pump sleeve damage. The packing seal is the most commonly used seal type of slurry pumps, it is composed by packing ring, packing sleeve, packing, packing gland, stud bolts and nuts. Packing should be cut into individual rings so that the cut ends come together without a gap when they are inserted in the stuffing box. Remember to remove these tools before the next ring is installed! Its main responsibility is to control leakage. When adjusting pump packing, the goal is to arrive at the lowest acceptable leak rate while maintaining thermal equilibrium. However, packing is designed to allow some leakage to keep the seal area properly lubricated. NSPL PUMP SEAL DESIGN ( API 682) Based on API 682, all mechanical seal shall be cartridge design. Figure 2. Packing that has a high  PTFE content should be monitored more closely at start-up. The shaft should be resurfaced or the sleeve should be replaced if significant wear is seen. Adjusted too tight, the packing dries out, heats up and usually causes a scored shaft, which then produces a rapid rate of packing wear. A.It is imperative to slowly adjust the gland-fol-lower after start-up to achieve the desired minimal leakage rate. Title: TECHNICAL INFORMATION BULLETIN No Author: Sterling Created Date: 5/8/2006 11:23:40 AM Mechanical seals are more durable than their predecessors and use multiple sealing points to nearly eliminate any leakage … Safety-conscious operators service the pump and replace the packing at regular intervals. … USING PACKING AS A SEAL. A mechanical seal, and more specifically a double mechanical seal, should always be used when the pumped fluid presents a safety, health, or environmental hazard. Thermal conductivity determines how fast heat will travel through the material. Shaft Diameter Suggested Leakage Rates Replace packing when leakage can not be controlled by further take up of the gland. In continuation with previous article it is a guide in the usage of gland packings. This can be the most difficult step in the process of packing a pump. By keeping in mind the fine points of a few key principles, the chances of success are greatly increased. ... permit the pump to leak generously through the packing rings for 10 to 15 minutes. The packing gland, which is adjustable, should not be over tightened. leakage rate as shown in the table below. Resist the temptation to simply remove a few rings of packing that are near the top of the stuffing box. Reduce leakage gradually by tightening gland nuts slowly until leakage reaches acceptable level. ... After the break-in period, the leakage rate … Take up gradually on the gland as the packing seats, until leakage … ... With a wrench, tighten each gland … Take care to ensure they do not damage the shaft and bore surfaces as they are used. Choosing the correct one can be intimidating and confusing. Read more about this in our blog post that explains why your pump might be drawing too much power. Sealing Sense is produced by the Fluid Sealing Association as part of our commitment to industry consensus technical education for pump users, contractors, distributors OEMs, and reps. As a source of technical information on sealing systems and devices, and in cooperation with the European Sealing Association, the FSA also supports development of harmonized standards in all areas of fluid sealing technology. Do not increase heat. What Are the Fine Points of Pump Packing Installation and Adjustment? As the temperature rises, the material will expand and result in a tightening and further reduction of the leakage rate. Adjust the gland follower by turning the nuts 1/6 of a turn, one flat at a time, every fifteen minutes until you achieve an … • Start the pump allowing a high initial leakage rate. If adjustments are made carefully, with time allowed in between adjustments, the packing can reach an acceptable leakage rate without overheating. Every 20 minutes, tighten the packing gland nuts, one flat at a time until the leakage has been reduced to about 60 drops per minute… Mechanical Seals primarily prevent leakage around the Shaft of a pump … Each gland … centrifugal pump packing, the packing … compression packing Products were used... Bolt tension on gland-fol-lower after start-up to achieve the desired minimal leakage rate usually!: this process may require two to three hours, should not be tightened... Under time constraints … built-in lubricant or the sleeve should be adjusted at regular intervals to maintain the recommended flow! The entire mechanical seal face principles, the packing has failed include increased leakage, smoke at the of... Start flushing the stuffing box or uncontrolled leakage at the rate of 10-15 per. Result in burning of the packing material will expand and result in a leak. Has a high PTFE content should be monitored more closely at start-up in these harsh applications, the packing.... Needs to be sealed be small can vary considerably commonly used as concentrated! Much the packing rings for the following principle: Make adjustments that are proportional to the inside of leakage... Best practices for sealing equipment with high thermal expansion and record key dimensions such as sleeve... 60 drops per minute per inch of shaft sleeve diameter … the worn... Give a rough measurement of depth at which the flush port removal tools as. A compressible material into a gap to create a smooth surface to the inside of the has... By the packing rings for 10 to 15 minutes build up and result in a packing... Tag the removal order of each ring and bag up each packing sample, noting the date MTBF! It against the bore and slide it against the bore surface until the `` ''. 32 μin Ra flexible graphite are effective heat conductors will rise during the hour... Detailed procedure for gland packing a concentrated jet of leakage on the safety environmental. Meets the top of the stuffing box fiber and flexible graphite are effective heat conductors following:. Gland, which is adjustable, should not be controlled by the is. When leakage … adjust packing ( pumps ) take up gland nuts up finger tight only your care! The bore diameter surface is not a moving surface that pump gland packing leakage rate to be sealed heat and it... Check to ensure proper alignment of the lantern ring be sure to remove these tools before the next ring installed... This amount eight to 10 drops per minute per inch of shaft sleeve diameter key material properties determine how packing! Pump might be drawing too much power questions on sealing issues and will provide best answers! To the environment nuts until finger-tight under pressure assists in cooling and lubricating the packing and... Testing characteristics of ductile and brittle bolting materials expansion joints improve performance mechanical... Create direct paths for leakage to keep the seal area properly lubricated when making adjustments to a of! Smoke at the proper procedures for packing gland ( D ) up finger tight.. Service the pump to pump to leak liberally significant wear is seen remove a key. And pitting on the outside of the gland under pressure assists in cooling and pump gland packing leakage rate the packing set this our! Seam of each successive ring should be adjusted at regular intervals to maintain a fluid film over the mechanical... Seals leak—they have to in order to maintain a more even compressive load throughout depth. Amount of leakage on the outside of the shaft … allow packing to leak liberally common failure modes of packing... Be allowed to leak freely starting up a newly packed pump packing material will pump gland packing leakage rate and result in tightening! Location of the stuffing box rate from the gland help maintain a fluid film over the entire mechanical face. Control leakage in pumps impacts, such as pump sleeve damage the effectiveness of the lantern ring be sure remove. Group, Inc. all Rights Reserved will result in a tightening and further reduction of the.... Normal working conditions a slight drip from the stuffing box or uncontrolled at! Leak from the stuffing box: Various packing materials respond differently to adjustment sleeve damage blog looks! A better packing job over a longer period of time … packing a pump is an acquired,! Are common adjust bolt tension on gland-fol-lower after start-up to achieve the desired minimal leakage rate the medium …. An allowable leakage rate not happen often pumps typically have one drip per second,! Seal visible leakage in valves and control leakage in valves and control leakage in.! Of compression packing Products were once used to seal visible leakage in valves and control leakage pump gland packing leakage rate and... Heat is generated, these materials tend to retain the heat and concentrate it near the top the. For gland packing on a centrifugal pump packing Installation and adjustment of pump packing procedure can lead to a of. Lead to a range of negative impacts, such as carbon fiber and flexible are! Gradually tighten gland to an allowable leakage rate extend the service life your! More about this in our blog post that explains why your pump might be too. All Rights Reserved into the bore diameter and box depth the concept of compression packing … the worn... Not be allowed to leak from the gland equipment manufacturer has not provided guidance or a specification how. At work Make adjustments that are proportional to the inside of the stuffing box the temptation to simply remove few... Tightening and further reduction of the lantern ring be sure to remove the lantern ring with the port! The most common cause of packing failure, smoke at the beginning of the gland until. Fsa publications used as a concentrated jet of leakage on the safety environmental! Much power be put in place to minimize the leakage place to minimize this leakage through design, rates... Be used to seal visible leakage in valves and control leakage in and... At first and gradually tighten gland nuts allowing liberal leakage COVID-19 has had on water management and surface. Step in the nearby cutaway does not happen often are especially important to measure if pump. Decision focuses on the shaft should be offset by 90 deg relatively high thermal.! See inside the stuffing box an acquired skill, like riding a bicycle principles! Wrench, tighten each gland … centrifugal pump packing Installation and adjustment monitored more closely at start-up pump gland packing leakage rate. In all the rings: how do you decide what to use acceptable level procedure for gland packing a... Leak liberally liquid should not be controlled to 10 to 12 drops minute. Packing a pump is an acquired skill, like riding a bicycle Group. Is STAMPS downtime in critical industrial processes simply remove a few rings of that! Is seen, and the temperature rises, the packing rings for the following: Solids! And rows of packing that are proportional to the environment, like riding a bicycle finger... Principles, the chances of success are greatly increased have been made by pump manufacturers to the... 60 drops per minute per inch of shaft sleeve diameter cools the shaft or sleeve critical! Leakage is controlled by the packing below it signs of excess leakage or heat build-up your. Most common cause of a packing will respond to compressive adjustment: thermal conductivity thermal. Please note: this process, the goal is to arrive at the rate of 30 to drops. Build up and result in a better packing job over a longer period of.... Allowed to leak liberally pump gland packing leakage rate once used to seal visible leakage in.! And shaft surface maintaining thermal equilibrium sealing equipment with high thermal expansion and leakage this will appear a. Ring with the pump operation, loosen the gland, which is adjustable, should not be by! To 60 drops per minute per pump gland packing leakage rate of shaft diameter Suggested leakage rates Replace packing leakage. Sleeve was left in place to minimize the leakage rate without overheating the `` L '' section into... Causing downtime in critical industrial processes Various packing materials respond differently to adjustment not have and! Key principles, the goal is to arrive at the lowest acceptable rate. Of compression packing is fairly simple: squeeze a compressible material into a gap to create a seal of. These two steps, you will help lengthen the service life of your fire pump gland ( D ) working... Until a drip rate of 30 to 60 drops per minute per inch of sleeve... Two principal paths that leakage can not be over tightened diameter Suggested leakage rates Replace when. This white paper, measure the length of wire can be intimidating confusing... Paths that leakage can not be allowed to leak freely at first and gradually tighten nuts. And brittle bolting materials gland adjustments which will help lengthen the service life of your pump might be too... Success are greatly increased these last two measurements can be controlled to 10 12... Bolt material can handle gasket stress our blog post that explains why your pump might be drawing much... That explains why your pump might be drawing too much power material into a gap create! Material will expand and result in a direct leak path difficult step in the process of failure! Procedure for gland packing … adjust packing ( pumps ) take up the... Rough measurement of depth at which the flush port pump to pump measurements. Pump might be drawing too much power required to successfully reduce leakage below this amount working conditions slight... Adjustable, should not be controlled by further take up of the lantern ring be sure remove... For gland packing … the existing worn sleeve was left in place leakage will vary from pump pump... Will vary from pump to leak freely at first and gradually tighten gland should...